Spoof Text

Teks spoof adalah teks yang menceritakan sebuah kejadian lucu atau peristiwa yang aneh yang telah terjadi di masa lampau.

Struktur dari teks spoof yaitu:
1. Orientation: Berfungsi sebagai awal cerita yang mengantar ke dalam inti cerita
2. Event 1: Bagian yang menceritakan kejadian awal
3. Event 2: Bagian yang menceritakan kejadian setelah kejadian awal (bila ada)
4. Twist: Akhir yang tidak terduga atau lucu

Spoof Text Example:

A.   A Man

A man from the country side went to a city. It was his first time visiting the city, so the city’s view with all the flashy technology shocked him very much.

While roaming the city’s shopping centre, he found a red building that was soo big! He wanted to go inside the building, so he excitedly walked up to the building and found himself face to face with a shiny metalic door. On the door was an ‘open’ sign. He was surprised, this building is an oven? He mistakenly took the sign ‘open’ as ‘oven’.

In cue with this mistake, a white man opened the door and entered the building. And then five minutes later, the metalic door opened revealing a black man!

When another white man came to enter the building, the country side man stopped him from entering. He said, “Don’t go in there! That building is an oven! ”

B. Nasreddin’s Coat

One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. He went to the party by wearing old clothes.

When he arrived in the party, nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes

Next he put on his best clothes. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. The host at once got up and came to meet him. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food

Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. He put his coat and said; “Eat the food, Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin; “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly; “When I came here with my old clothes, nobody looked at me. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. So, you give food to my coat instead of me”. Getting Nasreddin’s answer, they just shook the head.


Orientation: one day, Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party

Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth

Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat

Twist: Among the hosts and guests, he aske his coat to eat the served food

C.   Penguin in the Park

Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. He took it to a policeman and said; “What should I do?” The policeman replied; “Take it to the zoo!”.

The next day, the policeman saw the man in the same park. The man was still carrying the penguin. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked; “Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn’t you take it to the zoo?” The man replied; “I certainly did. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. So, today I am taking it to the movie”.


Orientation;introducing participants: “He” and Penguin. They were in the park

Event1; The man tended to take the penguin to the park

Event; The following day, the man were still carrying the penguin

Twist; Even, finally the man would take the penguin to the movies


Focusing on certain certain participants; He, penguin, policeman

Using action verb; carry, walk up

Using adverb of time and place; once, in the park

Told in chronological order; chronological order by days, the next day


Order letters


Jl. Raya Gatot Soebroto No. 24

Jakarta Selatan 12750

Your ref : MP / DC / 65

Our ref : AM / L / 2A

20th October, 2008

Mr. Kaichiiro Tora


PT. Shiichi Electronics

Jln. Raya Soedirman No. 14 – 15

Bandung 72852

Dear Mr. Kaiichiro :

Subject : Purchase Order No. 20

Thank you for your letter of 2nd October, enclosing your catalogue, price list, terms of payment and terms of delivery.

We shall pay for the goods by banker’s transfer on receipt of your pro-forma invoice and request delivery within two weeks (don’t forget to tell the transport method).

Send to our ware house address .

Sincerelly Yours,

Morizawa Rai

Purchase Manager


Jl. Raya Gatot Soebroto No. 24

Jakarta Selatan 12750

Purchase Order No. 20

To : PT. Shiichi Electronics

Jln. Raya Soedirman No. 14 – 15

Bandung 72852

Date : 20nd October, 2009

QTY Please Supply: Item Catalogue No : Price / Unit Total
50 Washing Machines Sharf A 1135 350.000 17.500.00050 Washing Machines Denpoo B 250 550.000 27.500.000

50 Washing Machines Electrolux Z 125 650.000 32.500.000

100 Vacum Cleaner Sharp T 225 800.000 80.000.000

50 Vacum Cleaner Sanyo V 1654 450.000 22.500.000

Total 180.000.000
Delivery date Terms For. PT. DHARMA KARYA

Required Office Equipment

30 October 2009 2 WeeksFrom

Receipt Morizawa Rai


  • Jika  reported speech menyatakan kata-kata yang sebenarnya, ini disebut direct speech (kalimat langsung). Kalimat-kalimat tersebut tidak dihubungkan oleh “that” melainkan harus ditandai dengan (tanda baca) koma.
  • Jika reported speech memberikan isi pokok kata-kata yang dipakai oleh si pembicara dan bukan kata-kata yang sebenarnya ini disebut indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung). Dalam indirect speech kalimat-kalimat itu dihubungkan dengan kata “that”.

Bentuk waktu reporting verb tidak diubah, akan tetapi bentuk waktu reported speech harus diubah berdasarkan atas bentuk waktu reporting verb.

Dua cara perubahan bentuk waktu pada reported speech :

Peraturan I

Kalau reporting verb itu past tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech itu harus diubah ke dalam salah satu dari empat bentuk past tense.

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

Simple present – menjadi – Simple past

He said ” The woman comes “ He said that the woman came

Dari contoh di atas dapat disimpulkan perubahan untuk bentuk waktu dari reported speech sebagai berikut :

Direct Speech

Simple present

Present continuous

Present perfect

Present perfect continuous

Simple past

Past continuous


PresentIndirect Speech

Simple past

Past continuous

Past perfect

Past perfect continuous

Past perfect

Past perfect continuous



kecuali :

Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi

kebiasaan, present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam

bentuk lampau yang sesuai, melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanmya, contoh :

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

He said, “The sun rises in the east” – He said that the sun rises in the east

Dalam reported speech, bila present tense diubah ke dalam past tense dengan peraturan I, kata sifat, kata kerja atau kata keterangan umumnya diubah:

Direct Speech

this = ini

these = ini

come = datang

here = di sini, ke sini

hence = dari sini

hither = ke tempat ini

ago = yang lalu

now = sekarang

today = hari ini

tomorrow = besok

yesterday = kemarin

last night = tadi malam

next week = minggu depan

thus = begini

contoh :

He said, “I will come here”.Indirect Speech

that = itu

those = itu

go = pergi

there = di sana, ke sana

thence = dari sana

thither = ke tempat itu

before = lebih dahulu

then = pada waktu itu

that day = hari itu

next day = hari berikutnya

the previous day = sehari sebelumnya

the previous night = semalam sebelumnya

the following week = minggu berikutnya

so = begitu

He said that he would go there

Akan tetapi kalau this, here, now dan sebagainya menunjukan pada benda, tempat atau waktu ketika berbicara, maka tidak dilakukan perubahan.

Agus said, “This is my pen”. – Agus said that this was his pen

(ketika berbicara pena berada di tangan pembicara)

Peraturan II

1) Bila reported speech kalimat berita

Dengan peraturan ini reporting verb dianggap dalam present atau future tense tertentu dan kapan saja ini terjadi, bentuk waktu dari kata kerja dalam reported speech tidak diubah sama sekali dalam mengubah direct menjadi indirect speech.

Reporting verb – Reported speech

Present tense – Any tense (bentuk waktu apapun)

Direct : She says to her friend, ” I have been writing “.

Indirect : She says to her friend that he has been writing. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She has told you, ” I am reading “.

Indirect : She has told you that he is reading. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She will say, ” You have done wrongly “.

Indirect : She will tell you that you have done wrongly. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She will say,” The boy wasn’t lazy “.

Indirect : She will tell them that the boy wasn’t lazy. (tidak berubah)

2) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat tanya

a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. Dengan mengulangi kata tanya dan mengubah tenses jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata tanya diberitakan.


He said to me, “Where are you going?”

He said to me, “What are you doing?”Indirect

He asked me where I was going

He inquired of me what I was doing

b) Dengan menggunakan if atau whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengubah tenses, jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata kerja diberitakan :


He said to me, “Are you going

away today?”

He asked me , “can you come along?”Indirect

He asked me whether I was

going away that day.

He asked me if I could come along.


3) Kalimat perintah (imperative sentences)

Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat perintah, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan :

  • · command (perintah), misalnya ordered, commanded, dsb yang berarti menyuruh, memerintahkan.
  • · precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan), misalnya advised yang berarti menasehati.
  • · request (permohonan), misalnya asked yang berarti meminta, memohon.
  • · entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak), misalnya begged yang berarti meminta, memohon (dengan sangat).
  • · prohibition (larangan), misalnya forbade yang berarti melarang.

Dalam perubahannya dari kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, modus imperatif harus diganti dengan infinitif. Tegasnya, reported verb (kata kerja yang diberitakan atau kata kerja dalam reported speech) harus diubah menjadi infinitive with to.

a) Command :

Direct: He said to his servant, “Go away at once!”

Indirect:He ordered his servant to go away at once


b) Precept :

Direct: She said to her son, “Study hard!”

Indirect: He advised her son to study hard


c) Request :

Direct: He said to his friend, “Please lend me your pen!”

Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to lend him his pencil


d) Entreaty :

Direct: He said to his master, “Pardon me, sir”

Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him.


e) Prohibition :

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there

Kalau reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi reported verb ask, order, command dsb (tapi jika bukan forbid), predikatnya diubah ke dalam infinitive with to yang didahului oleh not atau no + infinitive with to.

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there.


4) Kalimat seru (exclamatory sentences)

Bilamana reported speech terdiri dari kalimat seru atau kalimat optatif, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang semacam itu seperti exclaim, cry out, pray dsb.

a) Exclamatory sentences

Direct: He said, “Hurrah! My old friend has come”

Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that his old friend had come.


b) Optative sentences (kalimat yang menyatakan harapan, pujian, dsb)

Direct: He said, “God bless you, my dear son “

Indirect: He prayed that God would bless his dear son


Direct and Indirect Speech – example –

1.    ‘What do you want?’ she asked him.
2.    ‘Are you coming with us?’ he asked me.
3.    He asked, ‘When do you intend to make the payment?’
4.    ‘Do you come from China?’ said the prince to the girl.
5.    The poor man exclaimed, ‘Will none of you help me?’
6.    ‘Which way should I go?’ asked the little girl.
7.    Alladin said to the magician, ‘What have I done to deserve so severe a punishment?’
8.    ‘Don’t you know the way home?’ I said to her.
9.    ‘Do you write a good hand?’ the teacher said to the student.
10.    ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?’ said the judge finally.
11.    ‘Have you anything to tell me, little bird?’ asked Ulysses.
12.    ‘Who are you, sir, and what do you want?’ they asked.
13.    The king was impressed with the magician and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’
14.    She asked, ‘What is it that makes you stronger and braver than other men?’
15.    ‘Can you solve this problem?’ he asked me.


1.    She asked him what he wanted.
2.    He asked me if I was coming/going with them.
3.    He enquired when I/he/she intended to make the payment.
4.    The prince asked the girl if she came from China.
5.    The poor man exclaimed whether none of them would help him.
6.    The little girl asked which way she should go.
7.    Alladin asked the magician what he had done to deserve so severe a punishment.
8.    I asked her whether she did not know the way home.
9.    The teacher asked the student if he/she wrote a good hand.
10.    The judge finally asked whether he/she had anything to say on behalf of the accused.
11.    Ulysses asked the little bird whether it had anything to tell him.
12.    They asked who he was and what he wanted.
13.    The king was impressed with the magician and asked what he could do for him.
14.    She asked him what was it that made him stronger and braver than other men.
15.    He asked me if I could solve that problem.


A market is any one of a variety of different systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby person’s trade, and goods and services are exchanged, forming part of the economy. It is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange things. Markets vary in size, range, geographic scale, location, types and variety of human communities, as well as the types of goods and services traded. Some examples include local farmers markets held in town squares or parking lots, shopping centers and shopping malls, international currency and commodity markets, legally created markets such as for pollution permits, and illegal markets such as the market for illicit drugs.


In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price. This influence is a major study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand. There are two roles in markets, buyers and sellers. The market facilitates trade and enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Markets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or is constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership) of services and goods

Types of markets

Although many markets exist in the traditional sense — such as a marketplace — there are various other types of markets and various organizational structures to assist their functions. The nature of business transactions could define markets.

Financial markets

Financial markets facilitate the exchange of liquid assets. Most investors prefer investing in two markets, the stock markets and the bond markets. Currency markets are used to trade one currency for another, and are often used for speculation on currency exchange rates. The money market is the name for the global market for lending and borrowing.

Prediction markets

Prediction markets are a type of speculative market in which the goods exchanged are futures on the occurrence of certain events. They apply the market dynamics to facilitate information aggregation.



1. Simple Present Tense


Subject + Verb 1 + ….

They /   We

I   /   You

Subject + Verb s-es + ….

He  /   She



a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang – ulang dan terus menerus.

Contoh :

The students go to school everyday.

She studies English twice a week.

I go to church on Sundays

We celebrate our independence day once in a year.

b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth).


The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west.

The earth revolves round the sun.

The pineapple never grows up on a tree.

c. Digunakan dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya.

When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing on her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.


  1. Every morning/day/week/month/year
  2. Once, twice, three times, four times, …
  3. Adverb of frequency: always, usually, sometimes, often, never, seldom.

2. Present Continuous Tense


Subyek + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing


  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu diucapkan.


They are still playing at the moment.

She is reading a novel now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan.


I am learning French this year.

Mr. Brown is teaching English.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today.

Note : Ketika ada kata kerja seperti: Look!, Listen!, Watch!, Notice! ( Imperative), maka tenses

nya Present Continuous.

Contoh:     * Look! The man is climbing.

* Listen! The girls next door are singing my favourite song.

3. Present Perfect Tense


Subject + Have + Verb 3 + ….



a. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu.

Contoh :

William Shakespeare has written many short stories.

I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang.


My friends and I have gone to Bali.

Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: Since, for, just (baru saja), already, yet, so far.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense


Subject + Have + Been + Verb-ing



Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang mulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung.


My sister has been studying English for three months.

The students have been doing the test since 11 o’clock.


5. Simple Past Tense


Subject + Verb 2 + Object + ….


Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.


I met my music teacher yesterday.

My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.

Rendy closed the window five minutes ago.

The students presented their project work this morning.


–          Last ….                         –       …ago                                –       This afternoon

–          Just now            –       This morning                     –       Yesterday

6. Past Continuous Tense


Subject + was + Verb- ing



  1. Untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau.


I was studying at my friend’s house.

My parents were chatting in the living room.

  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau, dimana peristiwa lain juga terjadi .


When I was studying, someone knocked the door.

When I was walking to school, I met Dian sastro.

7.  Past Perfect tense


Subject + Had + Verb 3


Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau muncul.


The teachers went home after they had finished teaching.

When I arrived Kridosono, my favourite artist had performed.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: when, after, before.

8. Future Tense


Subject + shall + Verb 1 + …



  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.


Bobby will come here tomorrow.

I shall call my parents when I get home.

  1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yangbukan merupakan keinginan atau kehendak.


Tomy will be fourteen years old next year.

We shall die one day.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: Tomorrow, next week/month/year, the day after tomorrow.


Marketing is the process of interesting potential customers and clients in your products and/or services. The key word in this marketing definition is “process”; marketing involves researching, promoting, selling, and distributing your products or services. It’s a huge topic, which is why there are tomes written on marketing, and why you can take a four-year marketing degree. But essentially marketing involves everything you do to get your potential customers and your product or service together. When you’re putting together a marketing program for your business, concentrate on the marketing basics, the four key components of any marketing plan is product and services, promotion, distribution, and pricing. The name of the game in marketing is attracting and retaining a growing base of satisfied customers. Creating and implementing a marketing plan will keep your marketing efforts focused and increase your marketing success.


Step in Decision

Several steps have been recognized in decision making.  In presenting them, it is convenient to use a logical sequence but this pattern is a temporary one. The first Defining a decision:  in this phase, recognition of a problem arises and a diagnosis is made.  It is of a primary importance that the manager should first determine or specify his task, i.e., the aim or purpose to be achieved. Second, Analysing a decision:  in this phase, we analyze the decision by asking the questions:  what is the decision for, what will it change, what will it achieve, and whom will it affect. Third, Reviewing factors:  in this phase, we review the different factors which affect a situation. Fourth, Analysing possible course of action:  during this phase, we analyze all the possible alternatives.  Having examined all the relevant factors, it should become clear that there are a number of courses of action open to us. Fifth, Choosing the best alternatives:  during this phase, a particular course of action is selected from among those which are available.  When the mind has carried out its calculations, it offers the decision. Sixth, Implementing decision:  to implement means to put into action.  The process of decision is not complete until it is implemented and we have learnt to live with the consequences. Seventh, Evaluating decision:  the last step is decision making is the evaluation of the decision.  Sometimes, there is vigorous criticism of the decision that has been made.  The manager should proposed changes and their consequences. Because, Good decision making is an essential skill for career success generally, and effective leadership particularly. If you can learn to make timely and well-considered decisions, then you can often lead your team to spectacular and well-deserved success. However, if you make poor decisions, your team risks failure and your time as a leader will, most likely, be brutally short. The techniques in this section help you to make the best decisions possible with the information you have available. These tools help you map out the likely consequences of decisions, work out the importance of individual factors and choose the best course of action to take. These techniques build on the tools discussed in the section on Problem Solving Tools, in that Decision Making follows on from an understanding of the situation. The section on Creativity Tools will help you to explore what alternatives that are open to you.


Coordinated Sentences

a)  AND

ð  To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: “Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response.”

ð  To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative): “Use your credit cards frequently and you’ll soon find yourself deep in debt.”

ð  To suggest that one idea is the result of another: “Christy heard the weather report and promptly boarded up her house.”

ð  To suggest a kind of “comment” on the first clause: “Chassy became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew her.”

b)  BUT

ð  To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: “Topik lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably.”

ð  To connect two ideas with the meaning of “with the exception of” (and then the second word takes over as subject): “Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team.”

c)  OR

ð  To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: “You can study hard for this exam or you can fail.”

ð  To suggest a restatement or “correction” of the first part of the sentence: “There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us.”

ð  To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: “We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers

d)  YET

Yet functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings: in addition (“yet another cause of trouble” or “a simple yet noble woman”), even (“yet more expensive”), still (“he is yet a novice”), eventually (“they may yet win”), and so soon as now (“he’s not here yet”).

ð  Kunto plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton

ð  The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play golf every day

e)  FOR

The word FORis most often used as a preposition, of course, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunction. Some people regard the conjunction for as rather highfalutin and literary, and it does tend to add a bit of weightiness to the text

ð  Icha thought she had a good chance to get the job, for her father was on the company’s board of trustees

ð  Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train.

f)  SO

Be careful of the conjunction SO. Sometimes it can connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can’t. Where the word so means “as well” or “in addition,” most careful writers would use a semicolon between the two independent clauses.

ð  Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet.

ð  Soto has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds of his adoring fans

ð  So, the sheriff peremptorily removed the child from the custody of his parents

g)  NOR

The conjunction NOR is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation or writing.

ð  Lytta is neither sane nor brilliant.

ð  That is not what I meant to say, nor should you interpret my statement as an admission of guilt.

ð  That is neither what I said nor what I meant.