Order letters

PT. DHARMA KARYA

Jl. Raya Gatot Soebroto No. 24

Jakarta Selatan 12750


Your ref : MP / DC / 65

Our ref : AM / L / 2A

20th October, 2008

Mr. Kaichiiro Tora

Manager

PT. Shiichi Electronics

Jln. Raya Soedirman No. 14 – 15

Bandung 72852

Dear Mr. Kaiichiro :

Subject : Purchase Order No. 20

Thank you for your letter of 2nd October, enclosing your catalogue, price list, terms of payment and terms of delivery.

We shall pay for the goods by banker’s transfer on receipt of your pro-forma invoice and request delivery within two weeks (don’t forget to tell the transport method).

Send to our ware house address .

Sincerelly Yours,

Morizawa Rai

Purchase Manager

PT. DHARMA KARYA

Jl. Raya Gatot Soebroto No. 24

Jakarta Selatan 12750

Purchase Order No. 20

To : PT. Shiichi Electronics

Jln. Raya Soedirman No. 14 – 15

Bandung 72852

Date : 20nd October, 2009

QTY Please Supply: Item Catalogue No : Price / Unit Total
50 Washing Machines Sharf A 1135 350.000 17.500.00050 Washing Machines Denpoo B 250 550.000 27.500.000

50 Washing Machines Electrolux Z 125 650.000 32.500.000

100 Vacum Cleaner Sharp T 225 800.000 80.000.000

50 Vacum Cleaner Sanyo V 1654 450.000 22.500.000

Total 180.000.000
Delivery date Terms For. PT. DHARMA KARYA

Required Office Equipment

30 October 2009 2 WeeksFrom

Receipt Morizawa Rai

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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

  • Jika  reported speech menyatakan kata-kata yang sebenarnya, ini disebut direct speech (kalimat langsung). Kalimat-kalimat tersebut tidak dihubungkan oleh “that” melainkan harus ditandai dengan (tanda baca) koma.
  • Jika reported speech memberikan isi pokok kata-kata yang dipakai oleh si pembicara dan bukan kata-kata yang sebenarnya ini disebut indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung). Dalam indirect speech kalimat-kalimat itu dihubungkan dengan kata “that”.

Bentuk waktu reporting verb tidak diubah, akan tetapi bentuk waktu reported speech harus diubah berdasarkan atas bentuk waktu reporting verb.

Dua cara perubahan bentuk waktu pada reported speech :

Peraturan I

Kalau reporting verb itu past tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech itu harus diubah ke dalam salah satu dari empat bentuk past tense.

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

Simple present – menjadi – Simple past

He said ” The woman comes “ He said that the woman came

Dari contoh di atas dapat disimpulkan perubahan untuk bentuk waktu dari reported speech sebagai berikut :

Direct Speech

Simple present

Present continuous

Present perfect

Present perfect continuous

Simple past

Past continuous

Future

PresentIndirect Speech

Simple past

Past continuous

Past perfect

Past perfect continuous

Past perfect

Past perfect continuous

Past

Past

kecuali :

Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi

kebiasaan, present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam

bentuk lampau yang sesuai, melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanmya, contoh :

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

He said, “The sun rises in the east” – He said that the sun rises in the east

Dalam reported speech, bila present tense diubah ke dalam past tense dengan peraturan I, kata sifat, kata kerja atau kata keterangan umumnya diubah:

Direct Speech

this = ini

these = ini

come = datang

here = di sini, ke sini

hence = dari sini

hither = ke tempat ini

ago = yang lalu

now = sekarang

today = hari ini

tomorrow = besok

yesterday = kemarin

last night = tadi malam

next week = minggu depan

thus = begini

contoh :

He said, “I will come here”.Indirect Speech

that = itu

those = itu

go = pergi

there = di sana, ke sana

thence = dari sana

thither = ke tempat itu

before = lebih dahulu

then = pada waktu itu

that day = hari itu

next day = hari berikutnya

the previous day = sehari sebelumnya

the previous night = semalam sebelumnya

the following week = minggu berikutnya

so = begitu

He said that he would go there

Akan tetapi kalau this, here, now dan sebagainya menunjukan pada benda, tempat atau waktu ketika berbicara, maka tidak dilakukan perubahan.

Agus said, “This is my pen”. – Agus said that this was his pen

(ketika berbicara pena berada di tangan pembicara)

Peraturan II

1) Bila reported speech kalimat berita

Dengan peraturan ini reporting verb dianggap dalam present atau future tense tertentu dan kapan saja ini terjadi, bentuk waktu dari kata kerja dalam reported speech tidak diubah sama sekali dalam mengubah direct menjadi indirect speech.

Reporting verb – Reported speech

Present tense – Any tense (bentuk waktu apapun)

Direct : She says to her friend, ” I have been writing “.

Indirect : She says to her friend that he has been writing. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She has told you, ” I am reading “.

Indirect : She has told you that he is reading. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She will say, ” You have done wrongly “.

Indirect : She will tell you that you have done wrongly. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She will say,” The boy wasn’t lazy “.

Indirect : She will tell them that the boy wasn’t lazy. (tidak berubah)

2) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat tanya

a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. Dengan mengulangi kata tanya dan mengubah tenses jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata tanya diberitakan.

Direct

He said to me, “Where are you going?”

He said to me, “What are you doing?”Indirect

He asked me where I was going

He inquired of me what I was doing

b) Dengan menggunakan if atau whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengubah tenses, jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata kerja diberitakan :

Direct

He said to me, “Are you going

away today?”

He asked me , “can you come along?”Indirect

He asked me whether I was

going away that day.

He asked me if I could come along.

.

3) Kalimat perintah (imperative sentences)

Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat perintah, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan :

  • · command (perintah), misalnya ordered, commanded, dsb yang berarti menyuruh, memerintahkan.
  • · precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan), misalnya advised yang berarti menasehati.
  • · request (permohonan), misalnya asked yang berarti meminta, memohon.
  • · entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak), misalnya begged yang berarti meminta, memohon (dengan sangat).
  • · prohibition (larangan), misalnya forbade yang berarti melarang.

Dalam perubahannya dari kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, modus imperatif harus diganti dengan infinitif. Tegasnya, reported verb (kata kerja yang diberitakan atau kata kerja dalam reported speech) harus diubah menjadi infinitive with to.

a) Command :

Direct: He said to his servant, “Go away at once!”

Indirect:He ordered his servant to go away at once

.

b) Precept :

Direct: She said to her son, “Study hard!”

Indirect: He advised her son to study hard

.

c) Request :

Direct: He said to his friend, “Please lend me your pen!”

Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to lend him his pencil

.

d) Entreaty :

Direct: He said to his master, “Pardon me, sir”

Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him.

.

e) Prohibition :

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there

Kalau reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi reported verb ask, order, command dsb (tapi jika bukan forbid), predikatnya diubah ke dalam infinitive with to yang didahului oleh not atau no + infinitive with to.

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there.

.

4) Kalimat seru (exclamatory sentences)

Bilamana reported speech terdiri dari kalimat seru atau kalimat optatif, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang semacam itu seperti exclaim, cry out, pray dsb.

a) Exclamatory sentences

Direct: He said, “Hurrah! My old friend has come”

Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that his old friend had come.

.

b) Optative sentences (kalimat yang menyatakan harapan, pujian, dsb)

Direct: He said, “God bless you, my dear son “

Indirect: He prayed that God would bless his dear son

.

Direct and Indirect Speech – example –

1.    ‘What do you want?’ she asked him.
2.    ‘Are you coming with us?’ he asked me.
3.    He asked, ‘When do you intend to make the payment?’
4.    ‘Do you come from China?’ said the prince to the girl.
5.    The poor man exclaimed, ‘Will none of you help me?’
6.    ‘Which way should I go?’ asked the little girl.
7.    Alladin said to the magician, ‘What have I done to deserve so severe a punishment?’
8.    ‘Don’t you know the way home?’ I said to her.
9.    ‘Do you write a good hand?’ the teacher said to the student.
10.    ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?’ said the judge finally.
11.    ‘Have you anything to tell me, little bird?’ asked Ulysses.
12.    ‘Who are you, sir, and what do you want?’ they asked.
13.    The king was impressed with the magician and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’
14.    She asked, ‘What is it that makes you stronger and braver than other men?’
15.    ‘Can you solve this problem?’ he asked me.

Answers

1.    She asked him what he wanted.
2.    He asked me if I was coming/going with them.
3.    He enquired when I/he/she intended to make the payment.
4.    The prince asked the girl if she came from China.
5.    The poor man exclaimed whether none of them would help him.
6.    The little girl asked which way she should go.
7.    Alladin asked the magician what he had done to deserve so severe a punishment.
8.    I asked her whether she did not know the way home.
9.    The teacher asked the student if he/she wrote a good hand.
10.    The judge finally asked whether he/she had anything to say on behalf of the accused.
11.    Ulysses asked the little bird whether it had anything to tell him.
12.    They asked who he was and what he wanted.
13.    The king was impressed with the magician and asked what he could do for him.
14.    She asked him what was it that made him stronger and braver than other men.
15.    He asked me if I could solve that problem.

Market

A market is any one of a variety of different systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby person’s trade, and goods and services are exchanged, forming part of the economy. It is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange things. Markets vary in size, range, geographic scale, location, types and variety of human communities, as well as the types of goods and services traded. Some examples include local farmers markets held in town squares or parking lots, shopping centers and shopping malls, international currency and commodity markets, legally created markets such as for pollution permits, and illegal markets such as the market for illicit drugs.

market

In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price. This influence is a major study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand. There are two roles in markets, buyers and sellers. The market facilitates trade and enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Markets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or is constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership) of services and goods

Types of markets

Although many markets exist in the traditional sense — such as a marketplace — there are various other types of markets and various organizational structures to assist their functions. The nature of business transactions could define markets.

Financial markets

Financial markets facilitate the exchange of liquid assets. Most investors prefer investing in two markets, the stock markets and the bond markets. Currency markets are used to trade one currency for another, and are often used for speculation on currency exchange rates. The money market is the name for the global market for lending and borrowing.

Prediction markets

Prediction markets are a type of speculative market in which the goods exchanged are futures on the occurrence of certain events. They apply the market dynamics to facilitate information aggregation.