Tenses


I. PRESENT

1. Simple Present Tense

POLA:

Subject + Verb 1 + ….

They /   We

I   /   You

Subject + Verb s-es + ….

He  /   She

It

FUNGSI:

a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang – ulang dan terus menerus.

Contoh :

The students go to school everyday.

She studies English twice a week.

I go to church on Sundays

We celebrate our independence day once in a year.

b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth).

Contoh:

The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west.

The earth revolves round the sun.

The pineapple never grows up on a tree.

c. Digunakan dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya.

When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing on her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.

KETERANGAN WAKTU:

  1. Every morning/day/week/month/year
  2. Once, twice, three times, four times, …
  3. Adverb of frequency: always, usually, sometimes, often, never, seldom.

2. Present Continuous Tense

POLA :

Subyek + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing

FUNGSI;

  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu diucapkan.

Contoh:

They are still playing at the moment.

She is reading a novel now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan.

Contoh:

I am learning French this year.

Mr. Brown is teaching English.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today.

Note : Ketika ada kata kerja seperti: Look!, Listen!, Watch!, Notice! ( Imperative), maka tenses

nya Present Continuous.

Contoh:     * Look! The man is climbing.

* Listen! The girls next door are singing my favourite song.

3. Present Perfect Tense

POLA:

Subject + Have + Verb 3 + ….

Has

FUNGSI:

a. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu.

Contoh :

William Shakespeare has written many short stories.

I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang.

Contoh:

My friends and I have gone to Bali.

Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: Since, for, just (baru saja), already, yet, so far.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

POLA :

Subject + Have + Been + Verb-ing

Has

FUNGSI :

Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang mulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung.

Contoh:

My sister has been studying English for three months.

The students have been doing the test since 11 o’clock.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: For, since.

5. Simple Past Tense

POLA:

Subject + Verb 2 + Object + ….

FUNGSI:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.

Contoh:

I met my music teacher yesterday.

My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.

Rendy closed the window five minutes ago.

The students presented their project work this morning.

KETERANGAN WAKTU:

–          Last ….                         –       …ago                                –       This afternoon

–          Just now            –       This morning                     –       Yesterday

6. Past Continuous Tense

POLA:

Subject + was + Verb- ing

were

FUNGSI:

  1. Untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau.

Contoh:

I was studying at my friend’s house.

My parents were chatting in the living room.

  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau, dimana peristiwa lain juga terjadi .

Contoh:

When I was studying, someone knocked the door.

When I was walking to school, I met Dian sastro.

7.  Past Perfect tense

POLA:

Subject + Had + Verb 3

FUNGSI:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau muncul.

Contoh:

The teachers went home after they had finished teaching.

When I arrived Kridosono, my favourite artist had performed.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: when, after, before.

8. Future Tense

POLA:

Subject + shall + Verb 1 + …

will

FUNGSI:

  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.

Contoh:

Bobby will come here tomorrow.

I shall call my parents when I get home.

  1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yangbukan merupakan keinginan atau kehendak.

Contoh:

Tomy will be fourteen years old next year.

We shall die one day.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: Tomorrow, next week/month/year, the day after tomorrow.

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